Protection & Control Seminar

Power Plant Protection Track

To help you find the educational programs of most interest and value for you, the Protection & Control Seminar is divided into two program tracks. Attendees will stay within one track throughout the entire seminar.

Monday, July 27, 2020

7:00-8:00 AM
Breakfast & Attendee Check-in

  • Please check-in for the seminar and pick-up your badge and seminar materials at the Beckwith Electric Help Desk.

8:00-8:30 AM
Welcome & Introductions

8:30-10:00 AM
Generator Protection
Instructor: Wayne Hartmann

Generators are subject to internal faults, external faults and abnormal operating conditions impressed by turbine and excitation system issues, as well as power system events the generator has no control over but must cope with. False (nuisance) trips are costly as the generator’s output is lost. Inability to trip due to lack of sensitivity, lack of certain protections or deficiencies in protection application may cause severe damage to generators, resulting in prolonged outage and revenue loss, plus increased system stability risk. Achieving the ideal balance of secure and dependable protection involves use of an array of elements that protect the generator for all operating modes: off-line, start up, synchronizing, various levels of power output and when challenged by system faults and anomalies.

  • Generator construction and operation
  • Grounding and connections
  • IEEE standards for generator protection
    • C37. 102, Guide for Synchronous generator Protection
  • Generator and power system interaction
  • Generator protection element overview
    • Internal faults (in the generator zone)
    • Abnormal operating conditions
    • External faults
  • Protection Application Exploration
    • Stator Ground Fault (27TN, 59N, 59D, 64S, 67N, 87GD)
      • Exploration of stator ground fault injection protection sensitivity and security
    • Rotor Ground Fault/Brush Lift Off (64F, 64B)
    • Stator Phase Fault (87G)
    • Turn-to-Turn Fault
    • Phase Unbalance/Open Conductor (46)
    • Overexcitation (24)
    • Abnormal Voltage (59)
    • Phase Fault Backup (21)
    • Field Loss (40)
    • Loss of Synchronism (78)
    • Abnormal Frequency (81-U, 81A)
    • Inadvertent Energizing (50/27)
    • Blown VT Fuses (60FL)
    • Breaker Failure/Pole Flashover (50BF)
    • Loss of Prime Mover (32)
  • Tripping considerations and sequential tripping
  • Discuss tactics to improve reliability (security & dependability)
  • Generator protection upgrade considerations
    • Lessons learned from NE Blackout (2003)
    • Redundancy concepts
  • Explore Setting, Commissioning and Event Investigation Tools

10:00-10:15 AM
Break

10:15 AM-Noon
Generator Protection (Continued)

Noon-1:00 PM
Lunch

1:00-2:45 PM
Generator Protection (Continued)

2:45-3:00 PM
Break

3:00-5:00 PM
Fault Fundamentals
Instructor: Doug Weisz

  • Fault Types
  • Short-Circuit Calculations
  • Calculations and Settings
Monday Evening Activities

5:45-8:00 PM
Beach Volleyball Tournament
Beach Volleyball Courts Beachside behind the Sandpearl Resort
(Attendee Guests and Families Welcome!)

  • Power Grid Engineering is sponsoring its popular Annual Beach Volleyball Tournament starting at 5:45 PM at the Beach Volleyball Courts Beachside behind the Sandpearl Resort.
  • All skills are welcome to play volleyball or join us for snacks, drinks and networking.

Tuesday, July 28, 2020

7:00-8:00 AM
Breakfast

8:00-10:00 AM
Introduction to Generator Protection Calculations & Settings
Instructor: Dr. Murty Yalla

  • Building on the base knowledge covered in Generator Protection Fundamentals, calculations for protective elements are developed.
  • Depending on the element, these calculations use nameplate data, system data or a combination of the two.
  • Margin considerations are explored and impacts on element reliability are discussed, as well as element interdependencies with protection and control in the generator zone, local power plant and system.

10:00-10:15 AM
Break

10:15 AM-Noon
Introduction to Generator Protection Calculations & Settings (Continued)

Noon-1:00 PM
Lunch

1:00-5:00 PM

  • Option 1: Advanced Generator Protection Calculations & Settings
    • Instructor: Dr. Murty Yalla/Doug Weisz
  • Option 2: Generation Protection Hands-on Testing Lab Breakout Session
    • Register early as seats will be limited for Breakout Session!

2:45-3:00 PM
Break

Tuesday Evening Activities

7:00-10:00 PM
Hospitality & Demo Expo
Sandpearl Resort: Harbor Ballroom

  • Please join us Tuesday evening from 7-10 PM in the Harbor Ballroom at the Sandpearl Resort.
  • Beckwith Electric and Special Guests will host a Hospitality & Demo Expo for a time of networking and information sharing including food and drinks.
  • Don’t miss the raffle at the Hospitality & Demo Expo! Visit all of the demos during the Expo and have each representative stamp a raffle card. When your card is full, turn it in at the raffle table. There will be a drawing for some great prizes at the end of the reception. Must be present to win!

Wednesday, July 29, 2020

7:00-8:00 AM
Breakfast

8:00-10:00 AM
Transformer Protection
Instructor: Wayne Hartmann

Transformers are subject to internal faults, the effects of external faults and abnormal operating conditions impressed by the power system events the transformer has no control over but must cope with. False (nuisance) trips are costly as the transformer and load are disconnected. Inability to trip due to lack of sensitivity, lack of certain protections or deficiencies in protection application may cause severe damage to transformers, negatively impacting power flows, impacting power quality and compromising stability. Achieving the ideal balance of secure and dependable protection involves use of an array of elements that protect the transformer from prolonged internal faults, excessive through faults and when challenged by power system faults and anomalies.

  • Why transformers fail
    • The cost of failures
  • IEEE C37.91, Guide for Power Transformer Protection
    • IEEE Devices used in Transformer Protection
    • Transformer Protection Review
    • Transformer Protection Functions
  • Explore Protection Functions
    • 87T Phase Differential Characteristic
      • Compensation in Digital Relays
      • Relay Configuration: Winding Arrangement and CT Connection
  • Overcurrent based (50, 51, 50N, 51N, 46)
  • Through fault protection (TFM)
    • Current Summing & Through-Fault
  • Overexcitation (24)
    • Generating plant causes
    • T&D system causes
    • Protection Against Overexcitation – V/Hz versus 5th Harmonic
  • Phase Differential (87T)
    • Unique Issues Applying to Transformer Differential Protection
      • CT performance issues (saturation, remnant flux, tolerance, rating)
      • Percentage differential characteristics with variable percentage slopes
      • Internal ground fault sensitivity
      • Restraints for inrush and overexcitation
        • Overexcitation 87T Blocking Restraint – Failure to detect nascent fault
        • Overexcitation Adaptive 87T Pickup Restraint – Detects nascent faults
    • Adaptive restraint for security
    • Point-on-Wave Switching Inrush
    • Cross Phase Averaging
    • Switch-onto-Fault
  • High Set Phase Differential (87H)
  • Ground Differential (87GD), Restricted Earth Fault (REF)
  • Interface and Analysis Software: Desirable Attributes
    • NERC “State of Reliability”
  • Elegant Simplicity – Realization of configuration, settings, logic, monitoring
  • Trany Shop – Test and Commissioning

10:00-10:15 AM
Break

10:15 AM-Noon
Transformer Protection (Continued)

Noon-1:00 PM
Lunch

1:00-2:45 PM
Transformer Protection (Continued)

2:45-3:00 PM
Break

3:00-5:30 PM

  • Option 1: Transformer Protection Calculations & Settings – Differential Elements
    • Instructor: Dr. Murty Yalla
    • Building on the base knowledge covered in Transformer Protection Fundamentals, calculations for protective elements are developed. Depending on the element, these calculations use nameplate data, system data or a combination of the two. Margin considerations are explored and impacts on element reliability are discussed, as well as element interdependencies with protection and control in the transformer zone, whether in generation, transmission or distribution.
  • Option 2: Transformer Protection Hands-on Testing Lab Breakout Session
    • Register early as seats will be limited for Breakout Session!
Wednesday Evening Activities

6:00-8:00 PM

Happy Hour at The Brown Boxer Pub & Grille
Across the street from the Sandpearl Resort
Attendee Guests and Families Welcome!

  • Join Beckwith Electric and your fellow conference attendees for a reception with food and cocktails at the Brown Boxer from 6:00-8:00 PM.
  • The Brown Boxer is located right across the street from the Sandpearl Resort at 483 Mandalay Ave, Clearwater Beach, FL 33767.

 

Thursday, July 30, 2020

7:00-8:00 AM
Breakfast

8:00-10:00 AM
Motor Bus Transfer

Instructor: Tom Beckwith

Motor Bus Transfer is the process of rapidly transferring sources to a motor bus for planned source switching and unplanned source failure. The rapid transfer allows the process to continue without interruption. To avoid damage to the motors, specialized equipment and methods are employed to cope with the dynamics of motor deceleration, and voltage and phase angle change between the new source and the motor bus. Improper reconnection of the motor bus can cause cumulative or immediate damage to the motors, and result in a process crash.

  • Residual Voltage Transfers always thought to be safe even if completed out-of-phase, can cause significant torques on motors, exceeding a 3-phase fault at the motor terminals.
  • IEEE C37.96 identifies events that occur or conditions that exist prior to and during transfer where, at transfer initiate, the initial phase angle may be nowhere near zero!
  • So at the end of a Residual Voltage Transfer spin down, the close phase angle may be nowhere near zero!
  • Research with modeling motors during transfer has proven that in 40% of the cases closing at varied angles, the peak-to-peak torques developed during the Residual Voltage Transfer are higher than the 3-Phase Short Circuit Torques of the motors on the bus.
  • This research has revealed that the peak currents in motors during Residual Voltage Transfers are higher than the 3-Phase Short Circuit Currents in more than 60% of these cases.
  • This motor modeling research also shows that in 89% of the cases closing at varied angles, the currents during Residual Voltage Transfer are in excess of six times rated current.
  • Synchronous In-Phase Transfers may take longer than some arbitrary time limit. Depending on the initial phase angle at transfer initiate, it may take more than 6 or 10 cycles for the motors to rotate back into synchronism.
  • Compared to blind Residual Voltage Transfers, these Synchronous In-Phase Transfers are much faster, closing at much higher voltages, at much lower slip frequencies, with closure near zero degrees and low inrush current and torque.
  • The 1.33 resultant pu V/Hz transfer criterion in NEMA MG-1, ANSI/NEMA C50.41 and IEEE C37.96 has no correlation to motor torque and actually gives passing grades to severely excessive torques upon transfer.
  • Time period transfer criteria, stated in NEMA MG-1, IEEE 666, ANSI/NEMA C50.41 and IEEE C37.96, are arbitrary and would permit severely out-of-phase transfers or conversely may preclude perfectly good synchronous transfers.
  • A Motor Torque Ratio TPK /TL, introduced as the aggregate peak torque at transfer expressed as a multiple of the aggregate load torque prior to transfer, displays a high correlation to the phase angle at transfer with little effect from voltage or frequency difference.
  • If it is torque that reduces the life expectancy and damages motors or driven equipment, or both, as suggested in the C50.41 Standard, then the industry must use a torque-based criterion to assess if transfers are being completed within acceptable torque limits.

Course Outline:

  • Introduction
  • Why Transfer Motor Load Sources
  • Basic Application Configurations
    • Primary-Backup
    • Main-Tie-Main
    • Multiple-Option Source Selection
  • IEEE Std C37.96-2012 Motor Bus Transfer Classification – Methods & Modes
    • Automatic and Manual
    • Closed Transition Method – Hot Parallel Transfer
    • Open Transition Method – Fast, In-Phase, Residual Voltage
    • Open Transition Modes – Simultaneous, Sequential
  • IEEE Std C37.96-2012 Conditions Across Normally Open Startup or Bus Tie Breaker – Before / During Transfer
    • Effects of a Fault
    • Out-of-Step (OOS) Generator Trip
    • System Separation between Incoming Supply Sources
    • Supply Source Transformer Winding Phase Shift
    • Transient Effects upon Disconnect of Motor Loads
    • Motor and Load Characteristic Effects on MBT
  • Failed Residual Voltage Transfer – Case Study
  • Transfer Initiate, Inadvertent External Operation, Lockouts
  • Load Shed During Transfer
  • ANSI/NEMA Standard C50.41-2012 Resultant per unit V/Hz Limits
  • Bus Transfer Spin Down Testing, Acceptance Testing, Setting Considerations
  • Spin Down Analysis & Settings Calculations – Case Study
  • Sequential vs. Simultaneous Transfer, The Need for Speed – Case Study
  • IEEE Fast Transfer Sync Check Relay Performance Test Protocol Results
  • IEEE Residual Voltage Transfer Relay Performance Test Protocol Results
  • Motor Bus Transfer System Dynamic Performance Test Protocol Results and Observations
  • A Motor Bus Transfer Torque Ratio Criterion applied to Live Open Transition Transfers Under Normal Operating Load Conditions – Observations and Conclusions
  • Test Results from Modeling of Transient Currents and Torques on Motors during Residual Voltage Motor Bus Transfer
  • Conclusions

10:00-10:15 AM
Break

10:15 AM-Noon
Motor Bus Transfer (Continued)

Noon-1:00 PM
Lunch

Thursday Beckwith Factory Tour & Product Demo

1:00-5:45 PM (Optional)

Visit the Beckwith Electric factory for a behind-the-scenes look at our advanced manufacturing and services capabilities at work. Discover how we turn raw material into cutting-edge technology. Experience the Beckwith Electric commitment to quality, equipment reliability, testing procedures, new product development, and customer service. Talk to Beckwith Electric technical and product support staff and learn first-hand about our technology through live product demonstrations.

Includes transportation to and from the Sandpearl Resort. Estimated arrival back at the Sandpearl is 5:45-6:00 PM.

 

  • 1:00-1:05 PM
    Load Shuttle Bus for Beckwith Headquarters.
    Please go directly to the bus in front of the Sandpearl Resort on Mandalay Avenue. This is down the steps directly on the main road in front of the hotel. The Shuttle Bus will not load in the valet parking area.
  • 1:05-1:45 PM
    Travel to Beckwith Headquarters.
  • 1:45-5:00 PM
    Beckwith Electric Factory Tour & Product Demo
  • 5:00-5:45 PM
    Travel Back to Hotel.
Friday, July 31, 2020

7:00-8:00 AM
Breakfast

Optional Post-Seminar Product Training

Attend free training with an in-depth study on the associated software with each of the following products. You will learn settings configuration, and how to setup, retrieve, and read oscillography, sequence of event records, and other valuable information within our software.

 

  • Power Plant Protection Track
    • 8:00-9:30 AM
      • M-3425A Comprehensive Generator Protection System
        Instructor: Doug Weisz, Beckwith Electric, Principal P&C Engineer
    • 9:45-11:00 AM
      • M-3311A (2, 3, or 4-Winding) Transformer Protection System
        Instructor: Doug Weisz, Beckwith Electric, Principal P&C Engineer
    • 11:00 AM-Noon
      • M-7651A D-PAC Protection, Automation and Control System for Power Distribution Applications
        Instructor: Doug Weisz, Beckwith Electric, Principal P&C Engineer
  • Distribution & Control Track
    • 8:00-10:00 AM
      • Application, Considerations, and Settings for VVO
        Instructor: Steve Fischer, Beckwith Electric, P.E. Regional Sales & Application Manager
        Learn how to implement IVVC/VVO methodology using the Beckwith M-2001D LTC Transformer Control and M-6200A Regulator Control. The VAR biasing effect used in controls will either allow or disallow the capacitors to switch based on voltage and VAR flow conditions on the feeder, and only employ a tapchange when voltage deviations are not based on excess or deficient VAR conditions. The resultant VAR and voltage feedback to the LTC/regulators is used in adaptive schemes for CVR and normal operation.
    • 10:15 AM-Noon
      • Transformer, Regulator, and Capacitor Controls
        Instructor: Ted Murphy, Beckwith Electric, Application Engineer
        Instructor: Steve Fischer, Beckwith Electric, P.E. Regional Sales & Application Manager